|<<||Selected anniversaries for September||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2018 day arrangement
- 1529 – Sancti Spiritu, the first European settlement in Argentina, was destroyed by Amerindians.
- 1862 – American Civil War: Confederate forces attacked retreating Union Army troops at the Battle of Chantilly during a rainstorm in Chantilly, Virginia, but the fighting ended up being tactically inconclusive.
- 1902 – The first science fiction film, titled A Trip to the Moon (scene pictured) and based on From the Earth to the Moon by Jules Verne, was released in France.
- 1914 – The passenger pigeon, which once numbered in the billions, became extinct when the last individual died in captivity.
- 1972 – American chess grandmaster Bobby Fischer became the 11th World Chess Champion when he defeated Russian Boris Spassky in a match that was widely publicized as a Cold War confrontation.
- 1666 – A large fire began on London's Pudding Lane and burned the city for three days, destroying St Paul's Cathedral and the homes of 70,000 of the city's 80,000 inhabitants.
- 1792 – French Revolution: Due to an overwhelming fear that foreign armies would attack Paris and prisoners would revolt, thousands of people were summarily executed.
- 1885 – White miners in Rock Springs, Wyoming, U.S., attacked Chinese immigrants, killing at least 28 Chinese miners and causing approximately US$150,000 in property damage.
- 1967 – Paddy Roy Bates proclaimed HM Fort Roughs, a former World War II Maunsell Sea Fort in the North Sea off the coast of Suffolk, England, as an independent sovereign state: the Principality of Sealand (pictured).
- 1998 – A fire on Swissair Flight 111, en route from New York City to Geneva, caused the aircraft to crash into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 229 people on board.
- 36 BC – Sicilian revolt: A victory by the fleet of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa over that of Sextus Pompeius in the Battle of Naulochus ended Pompeian resistance to the Second Triumvirate.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: The British Army and their Hessian allies defeated an American militia in the Battle of Cooch's Bridge.
- 1935 – On the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, British racing motorist Malcolm Campbell (pictured) became the first person to drive an automobile over 300 mph (480 km/h).
- 1942 – The Holocaust: In possibly the first Jewish ghetto uprising, residents of the Łachwa Ghetto in occupied Poland, informed of the upcoming "liquidation" of the ghetto, unsuccessfully fought against their Nazi captors.
- 2001 – The Troubles: Protestant loyalists began picketing a Catholic primary school for girls in the Protestant portion of Ardoyne, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
- 476 – Germanic leader Odoacer captured Ravenna, the capital of the Western Roman Empire, and deposed Emperor Romulus Augustus.
- 1774 – British explorer James Cook became the first European to sight the island of New Caledonia.
- 1843 – Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies married Pedro II of Brazil (both pictured) at a state ceremony.
- 1957 – Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School.
- 2007 – Three terrorists suspected to be a part of Al-Qaeda were arrested in Germany after planning attacks on both Frankfurt Airport and Ramstein Air Base.
- 917 – Liu Yan declared himself emperor, establishing the Southern Han state in southern China, at his capital of Panyu (present-day Guangzhou).
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: French naval forces handed Britain a major strategic defeat in the Battle of the Chesapeake.
- 1882 – A group of London school boys led by Bobby Buckle founded Tottenham Hotspur F.C. so they could continue to play sports during the winter months.
- 1921 – Popular American comedian Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle attended a party during which a woman was fatally injured; although he was eventually acquitted of manslaughter, the trial's scandal derailed his career.
- 1977 – NASA launched the robotic space probe Voyager 1 (pictured), currently the farthest spacecraft from Earth.
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: General Benedict Arnold led British forces to victory in the Battle of Groton Heights.
- 1901 – U.S. President William McKinley (pictured) was fatally wounded by anarchist Leon Czolgosz at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.
- 1952 – A prototype aircraft crashed at the Farnborough Airshow in Hampshire, England, killing the pilot and test observer on board, and 29 spectators.
- 1970 – Palestinian fedayeen hijacked four jet aircraft, landing two of them at Dawson's Field in Zerqa, Jordan, and one plane in Beirut.
- 1976 – Soviet pilot Viktor Belenko landed his MiG-25 in Hakodate, Japan, and declared his intention to defect.
- 2007 – The Israeli Air Force carried out an airstrike on a suspected nuclear reactor in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria.
- 1159 – Pope Alexander III was chosen as the successor of Pope Adrian IV in a disputed election.
- 1778 – Anglo-French War: France invaded the island of Dominica and captured its British fort before the latter even knew that France had allied with the United States.
- 1936 – The last thylacine died in captivity in Hobart Zoo in Australia.
- 1940 – Second World War: The Luftwaffe changed their strategy in the Battle of Britain and began bombing London and other British cities and towns for more than 50 consecutive nights (Heinkel bomber pictured).
- 1984 – An explosion on board a Maltese patrol boat disposing illegal fireworks at sea off Gozo kills 7 soldiers and policemen.
- 2010 – A Chinese fishing trawler, operating in disputed waters, collided with Japanese Coast Guard patrol boats near the Senkaku Islands, sparking a major diplomatic dispute between the two countries.
- 617 – Li Yuan defeated a Sui dynasty army in the Battle of Huoyi, opening the path to his capture of the imperial capital Chang'an and the eventual establishment of the Tang dynasty.
- 1796 – French Revolutionary Wars: The French defeated Austrian forces in Bassano, Venetia, present-day Italy.
- 1921 – In Atlantic City, New Jersey, Margaret Gorman (pictured) was crowned the "Golden Mermaid", the forerunner to the Miss America pageant.
- 1954 – Eight nations signed an agreement to create the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, a Southeast Asian version of NATO.
- 1966 – The American science fiction show Star Trek premiered with "The Man Trap", launching a media franchise that has since created a cult phenomenon and has influenced the design of many current technologies.
- 1978 – Iranian Revolution: After the government of the Shah of Iran declared martial law in response to protests, the Iranian Army shot and killed at least 88 demonstrators in Tehran on Black Friday.
- 1493 – Ottoman Empire forces defeated the Croatian army at the Battle of Krbava Field.
- 1936 – Opposed to António de Oliveira Salazar's support of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, the crews of the Portuguese Navy ships NRP Afonso de Albuquerque and Dão mutinied while anchored in Lisbon harbour.
- 1954 – The 6.7 Mw Chlef earthquake struck Algeria, leaving at least 1,243 people dead and 5,000 injured, and forced the government to implement comprehensive reforms in building codes.
- 1969 – Allegheny Airlines Flight 853 collided in mid-air with a Piper PA-28 Cherokee flown by a student pilot near Fairland, Indiana, U.S., destroying both planes and killing all 83 occupants.
- 1971 – John Lennon's solo album Imagine was released.
- 1547 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: English forces defeated the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh near Musselburgh, Lothian, Scotland.
- 1897 – A peaceful labor demonstration made up of mostly Polish and Slovak anthracite coal miners in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, U.S., was fired upon by a sheriff's posse in the Lattimer massacre.
- 1937 – Led by the United Kingdom and France, nine nations met in the Nyon Conference to address international piracy in the Mediterranean Sea.
- 1960 – Running barefoot in the marathon event at the Rome Olympics, Abebe Bikila (pictured) became the first person from Sub-Saharan Africa to win an Olympic gold medal.
- 2007 – Nawaz Sharif, the thirteenth Prime Minister of Pakistan, returned to the country after being ousted in a coup and exiled eight years earlier.
- 1226 – The first instance of the Catholic practice of perpetual Eucharistic adoration formally began in Avignon, France.
- 1649 – Cromwellian conquest of Ireland: Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army ended the Siege of Drogheda, took over the town and massacred its garrison.
- 1924 – French composer Gabriel Fauré (pictured) finished his last piece, a string quartet, before dying two months later.
- 1992 – The eye of Hurricane Iniki, the most powerful hurricane to strike the Hawaiian Islands in recorded history, passed directly over the island of Kauai, killing six people and causing around US$1.8 billion dollars in damage.
- 2001 – Al-Qaeda used four hijacked passenger airliners to carry out a series of suicide attacks against targets in New York City and the Washington, D.C., area.
- 490 BC – Greco-Persian Wars: Athenians and their Plataean allies turned back the first Persian invasion of Greece in the Battle of Marathon.
- 1848 – Switzerland became a federal state with the adoption of a new constitution.
- 1910 – Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 8, one of the largest-scale choral works in the classical concert repertoire, was first performed in Munich.
- 1942 – World War II: The Imperial Japanese Army began the Battle of Edson's Ridge in an effort to retake Henderson Field on Guadalcanal.
- 1963 – The Roman Hinton St Mary Mosaic, containing a likely fourth-century depiction of Jesus (detail pictured), was discovered.
- 1992 – Aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, American Mae Jemison became the first black woman in space.
- 2015 – An explosion involving illegally stored mining detonators in Petlawad, in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, killed at least 105 people and injured more than 150 others.
- 1541 – After three years of exile, John Calvin returned to Geneva to reform the church under a body of doctrine that came to be known as Calvinism.
- 1848 – An explosion drove an iron rod through the head of railroad foreman Phineas Gage, making him an important early case of personality change after brain injury.
- 1899 – An expedition led by Halford Mackinder made the first ascent of Mount Kenya (pictured), the second-highest mountain in Africa.
- 1933 – Elizabeth McCombs became the first woman elected to the Parliament of New Zealand.
- 1971 – Following a failed coup attempt, Mao Zedong's second-in-command Lin Biao died in a plane crash while attempting to flee the People's Republic of China.
- 2007 – The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, setting out the individual and collective rights of indigenous peoples, as well as their rights to culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and other issues.
- 919 – A coalition of native Irish, led by Niall Glúndub, failed in their attempt to drive the Vikings of the Uí Ímair from Ireland
- 1752 – In adopting the Gregorian calendar under the terms of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, the British Empire skipped eleven days (September 2 was followed directly by September 14).
- 1927 – In a freak automobile accident, dancer Isadora Duncan (pictured) died of a broken neck in Nice, France, after her scarf was caught on the wheel of a car in which she was a passenger.
- 1954 – In a secret nuclear test, a Soviet Tu-4 bomber dropped a 40-kiloton atomic weapon just north of Totskoye village, exposing some 45,000 soldiers and 10,000 civilians to nuclear fallout.
- 2007 – Late-2000s financial crisis: The Northern Rock bank received a liquidity support facility from the Bank of England, sparking a bank run—the United Kingdom's first in 150 years.
- 1530 – According to the Dominican Order, three mysterious women brought the painting Saint Dominic in Soriano to a friary in Soriano Calabro, Calabria, Italy.
- 1830 – The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened (train pictured) as the first locomotive-hauled railway to connect two major cities.
- 1935 – Nazi Germany enacted the Nuremberg Laws, which deprived German Jews of citizenship, and adopted a new national flag emblazoned with a swastika.
- 1963 – A bomb planted by members of the Ku Klux Klan exploded in the 16th Street Baptist Church, an African American church in Birmingham, Alabama, killing four children and injuring at least 22 others.
- 2008 – Late-2000s financial crisis: The global financial-services firm Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy while holding over $600 billion in assets, the largest such filing in U.S. history.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: American colonists defeated British troops at the Battle of Harlem Heights in present-day New York City.
- 1940 – Second World War: Italy captured the town of Sidi Barrani, but its invasion of Egypt (Italian tanks pictured) progressed no further.
- 1963 – Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo (present-day Sabah), and Sarawak merged to form Malaysia.
- 1982 – A Lebanese militia under the direct command of Elie Hobeika carried out a massacre in the Palestinian refugee camp of Sabra and Shatila, killing at least 700 civilians.
- 1990 – Construction of the Northern Xinjiang Railway was completed between Ürümqi and Alashankou, linking the railway lines of China and Kazakhstan, and adding a sizable portion to the Eurasian Land Bridge.
- 2007 – Seventeen Iraqi civilians were shot and killed by Blackwater Worldwide guards.
- 1683 – Antonie van Leeuwenhoek wrote a letter to the Royal Society describing "animalcules" – the first known description of protozoa.
- 1862 – American Civil War: Almost 23,000 total casualties were suffered at the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland, where Confederate and Union troops fought to a tactical stalemate.
- 1914 – World War I: The Franco-British and German armies began the "Race to the Sea", reciprocal attempts to envelop the northern flank of the opposing army through northern France and Belgium.
- 1970 – King Hussein ordered the Jordanian Army to oust Palestinian fedayeen from Jordan in what became known as Black September (smoke rising above Amman pictured).
- 2011 – Adbusters, a Canadian anti-consumerist publication, organized a protest against corporate influence on democracy at Zuccotti Park in New York City that became known as Occupy Wall Street.
- 324 – Constantine the Great decisively defeated Licinius in the Battle of Chrysopolis, establishing Constantine's sole control over the Roman Empire, and ending the Tetrarchy.
- 1809 – The second theatre of the Royal Opera House in London opened after a fire destroyed the original theatre one year earlier.
- 1870 – Nathaniel P. Langford of the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition first observed a geyser in Wyoming Territory erupting at regular intervals and named it "Old Faithful" (video featured).
- 1918 – World War I: The Central Powers' defeat in the Battle of Dobro Pole played a role in the Bulgarian withdrawal from the war and opened the way for the subsequent liberation of Vardar Macedonia.
- 2014 – Scotland voted against independence from the United Kingdom.
- 634 – Arab–Byzantine wars: Rashidun Arabs under Khalid ibn al-Walid captured Damascus from the Byzantine Empire.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: British troops engaged American forces at the first Battle of Saratoga in New York.
- 1846 – Two French shepherd children, Mélanie Calvat and Maximin Giraud, reported experiencing a Marian apparition on a mountaintop near La Salette, France, now known as Our Lady of La Salette (statue pictured).
- 1944 – World War II: Finland and the Soviet Union signed the Moscow Armistice to end the Continuation War.
- 1991 – Ötzi, a well-preserved natural mummy of a man from about 3300 BC, was discovered by two German tourists.
- 1498 – A tsunami caused by the Nankai earthquake washed away the building housing the statue of the Great Buddha (pictured) at Kōtoku-in in Kamakura, Japan.
- 1792 – The French Army achieved its first major victory in the War of the First Coalition at the Battle of Valmy.
- 1967 – Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard publicly announced the story of Xenu in a taped lecture sent to all Scientologists.
- 1977 – A series of celestial phenomena of unknown nature was observed in the western Soviet Union, Finland and Denmark.
- 2011 – The United States ended its "don't ask, don't tell" policy, allowing gays and lesbians to openly serve in the military.
- 1170 – Combined English and Irish forces seized Dublin, forcing Ascall mac Ragnaill, King of Dublin, into exile.
- 1897 – In response to a letter written by eight-year-old Virginia O'Hanlon (pictured), The New York Sun published an editorial by Francis Pharcellus Church stating, "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus".
- 1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy children's novel The Hobbit, which later served as a prelude to The Lord of the Rings, was first published.
- 1993 – Nirvana released their third and final studio album, In Utero, which went on to sell 15 million copies.
- 2001 – With racial tensions high after the September 11 attacks, a gang of British Muslim youths in Peterborough, England, murdered 17-year-old Ross Parker.
- 1586 – Eighty Years' War: Spanish forces were victorious against a combined Anglo-Dutch army in the Battle of Zutphen.
- 1914 – World War I: German naval forces bombarded Papeete in French Polynesia.
- 1922 – After nine days, the great fire of Smyrna was extinguished, having caused tens of thousands of deaths.
- 1957 – François "Papa Doc" Duvalier (pictured) was elected President of Haiti as a populist before consolidating power and ruling as a dictator for the rest of his life.
- 1993 – A tugboat towing a barge collided with a rail bridge in Mobile, Alabama, U.S., deforming the tracks and causing the derailment of a passenger train eight minutes later, which killed 47 people and injured an additional 103.
- 1780 – American Revolutionary War: British officer John André was captured by Patriot forces, thereby revealing a plot by Continental Army General Benedict Arnold (pictured) to hand over West Point, New York.
- 1803 – Maratha troops were defeated by British forces at the Battle of Assaye, one of the decisive battles of the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
- 1868 – Ramón Emeterio Betances led the Grito de Lares, a revolt against Spanish rule in Puerto Rico.
- 1983 – A bomb placed by the Abu Nidal organisation destroyed Gulf Air Flight 771, flying from Karachi, Pakistan, to Abu Dhabi, UAE, killing all 112 people aboard.
- 2016 – Major reforms were enacted to strengthen laws related to rape in Germany following a number of high profile sexual assaults
- 1645 – English Civil War: Royalists under the personal command of King Charles I suffered a significant defeat in the Battle of Rowton Heath.
- 1841 – The Sultan of Brunei granted Sarawak to British adventurer James Brooke.
- 1957 – Barcelona's Camp Nou (pictured), currently the largest stadium in Europe with a seating capacity of 99,354, opened.
- 1992 – Oba Chandler was arrested three years after he committed a triple murder in Tampa Bay, Florida, U.S., when his neighbor identified handwriting samples that police had placed on local billboards.
- 2007 – During the Saffron Revolution in Myanmar, the largest anti-government protests in 20 years took place in Yangon.
- 1237 – Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland signed the Treaty of York, establishing the Anglo-Scottish border, which mostly remains the same today.
- 1790 – Peking opera (modern performer pictured) was born when the Four Great Anhui Troupes introduced Anhui opera to Beijing in honor of the Qianlong Emperor's eightieth birthday.
- 1911 – An explosion of badly degraded propellant charges on board the French battleship Liberté detonated the forward ammunition magazines and destroyed the ship.
- 1944 – Second World War: British troops began their withdrawal from the Battle of Arnhem in the Netherlands, ending the Allies' Operation Market Garden in defeat.
- 1974 – The first surgery to replace the ulnar collateral ligament, commonly known as the Tommy John surgery after the first patient, was performed by Dr. Frank Jobe.
- 1493 – Pope Alexander VI issued the papal bull Dudum siquidem, the last of the Bulls of Donation, marking the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
- 1580 – The Golden Hind (replica pictured) sailed into Plymouth, England, as explorer Francis Drake completed his circumnavigation of the globe.
- 1917 – World War I: The Battle of Polygon Wood, part of the Battle of Passchendaele, began near Ypres, Belgium.
- 1942 – The Holocaust: Nazi official August Frank issued a memorandum setting out how the belongings of murdered Jews were to be disposed of.
- 2010 – Scottish aid worker Linda Norgrove and three Afghan colleagues were kidnapped by members of the Taliban in the Kunar Province of eastern Afghanistan.
- 1422 – The Treaty of Melno was signed, establishing the Prussian–Lithuanian border, which afterwards remained unchanged for about 500 years.
- 1875 – The Ellen Southard wrecked in a storm at Liverpool, England; the United States Congress subsequently awarded 27 gold Lifesaving Medals to the lifeboat men who rescued her crew.
- 1949 – Members of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference unanimously selected Zeng Liansong's design for the flag of China (pictured).
- 1975 – Two members of ETA political-military and three of the Revolutionary Antifascist Patriotic Front became the last people to be executed in Spain, having been sentenced to death for murders of policemen and civil guards.
- 2007 – NASA launched the Dawn probe, its first purely exploratory mission to use ion propulsion, from Cape Canaveral.
- 1821 – The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City.
- 1891 – Railway workers in Montevideo founded the Central Uruguay Railway Cricket Club, which later changed its name to Peñarol, now Uruguay's most successful football club.
- 1912 – Over 470,000 people from Ulster, Ireland, signed the Ulster Covenant in protest against the Third Home Rule Bill (Edward Carson pictured).
- 1972 – Against the backdrop of the Cold War, the Canadian ice hockey team defeated the Soviet team in the Summit Series.
- 2012 – War in Somalia: Somali National Army forces and their AMISOM and Raskamboni allies launched an offensive against Al-Shabaab in the latter's last major stronghold of Kismayo.
- 1918 – World War I: At the Battle of St Quentin Canal, the British Fourth Army made the first breach of the German defensive Hindenburg Line.
- 1940 – Two Avro Ansons of No. 2 Service Flying Training School RAAF collided in mid-air over Brocklesby, New South Wales, Australia, remained locked together after colliding (pictured), and landed safely.
- 1957 – An explosion at the Soviet nuclear reprocessing plant Mayak released 74 to 1,850 PBq of radioactive material.
- 1962 – Alouette 1, Canada's first satellite, and the first satellite constructed by a country other than the Soviet Union or the United States, was launched.
- 1991 – The Haitian Army deposed President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, eight months after the nation's first democratic elections.
- 737 – Muslim conquest of Transoxiana: Turgesh tribes attacked the exposed Umayyad baggage train, which had been sent ahead of the main force, and captured it.
- 1551 – Sue Takafusa, a military leader for the Ōuchi clan in western Japan, led a coup against daimyo Ōuchi Yoshitaka, leading to the latter's forced suicide.
- 1939 – World War II: General Władysław Sikorski (pictured) became Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile.
- 1975 – The AH-64 Apache, the primary attack helicopter for a number of countries, made its first flight.
- 2005 – The Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published controversial editorial cartoons depicting Muhammad, sparking protests across the Muslim world by many who viewed them as Islamophobic and blasphemous.